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Durzaam bodembeheer voor elke natie!

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Unique Practices

Zoek specifieke duurzame bodembeheermethoden om de bodemgezondheid in je land te verbeteren.

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Sustainable Soil Management (SSM) Practice

Sustainable Soil Management (SSM) Crop

India

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Subtropical Summer Rainfall

Cambisols

Fluvisols

Leptosols

Regosols

Gleysols

Planosols

Stagnosols

Lixisols

Acrisols

Subtropical Summer Rainfall

Cambisols

Fluvisols

Leptosols

Regosols

Gleysols

Planosols

Stagnosols

Lixisols

Acrisols

Crop Type Image

Croplands

Agriculture, with its allied sectors, is the largest source of livelihoods in India. 70 percent of its rural households still depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood, with 82 percent of farmers being small and marginal. In 2017-18, total food grain production was estimated at 275 million tonnes (MT).  India is the largest producer (25% of global production), consumer (27% of world consumption) and importer (14%) of pulses in the world. India's annual milk production was 165 MT (2017-18), making India the largest producer of milk, jute and pulses and with world's second-largest cattle population 190 million in 2012.It is the second-largest producer of rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton and groundnuts as well as the second-largest fruit and vegetable producer, accounting for 10.9% and 8.6% of the world fruit and vegetable production, respectively.

Indian agriculture faces issues associated with adaptation to climate change disturbances, fragmented landholdings, low farm productivity and high food price volatility which call for next generation reforms like adoption of environmentally sustainable and climate resistant new farm technology, development of market for land consolidation and improvement in post-harvest practices.

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Feedlands

India caters to approximately 20% of the world's livestock population and about 17.5% of the human population on just 2.3% of the world's land area. The human population is increasing at a pace of 1.6% per annum, while the livestock population is increasing at a rate of 0.66% per year. These increasing human and animal populations are fighting tooth and nail for land resources for food and fodder production, respectively. As a result, cultivated fodders occupy only 4% of the entire cultivable land in the country. Presently, the country faces a net shortfall of 35.6% green fodder, 10.5% dry crop leftovers, and 44% concentrate feed ingredients. The option for increasing land area under fodder cultivation is very limited. Hence, it is a big challenge in front of us to utilize the available meagre land wisely with its fullest potential to produce the fodders for the animals. Which could be achieved by adopting suitable cropping systems, incorporation of fodder crops in food and other cash crop-based cropping systems on rotational basis, production of fodder on degraded lands by adopting fodder-based agroforestry systems and exploring other options of green fodder like azolla. The cropping system with forage crops provides a potential alternative to overcome the fodder problem as it utilizes the resources more efficiently.

Fodder crops are cultivated or harvested for feeding the animals in the form of forage (cut green and fed fresh), silage (preserved under anaerobic conditions) and hay (dehydrated/dried green). Sorghum (2.6 M ha) and Egyptian clover (1.9 M ha) account for roughly 54% of the total cultivated fodder area in the kharif and rabi seasons, respectively. Farmers are growing grasses and legumes including hybrid Napier, guinea grass, paragrass, velvet bean, stylo, etc. in many areas.

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Animal Rearing

Livestock is an integral part of agriculture, and it plays a significant role in the nutritional security of the masses. The sector employs 8.8 percent of the population by providing livelihood support to 20.6 million people.

Global milk production reached nearly 906 million tonnes in 2020 with India as the largest producer of milk with 22 percent share in total milk production in the world. In India, 50 percent of milk is consumed on-farm. India accounts for about 7.22 percent of the global egg production, 2.55 percent of global meat production and houses the largest population of milch animals in the world.

India's livestock population expanded from 512.06 million in 2012 to 535.82 million in 2019, representing a 4.6% increase over the last census with an annual growth rate of 0.66%. The main reason for our livestock's low productivity is malnutrition or under-nutrition caused by a wide disparity in demand and supply of feed and fodder in the country. Due to shortage of green fodder, particularly during the summer months, dairy farmers have been feeding a disproportionate amount of concentrates to their animals in order to maintain milk production.

There are many challenges the sector will come across during the process of achieving any set target in the future like disease outbreaks, antimicrobial resistance, and greenhouse gas emission, inadequate human resources and infrastructure for veterinary services, low productivity of animals, non-remunerative milk prices, the unorganized markets for livestock products, low animal productivity, poor livestock extension, and shortage of feed and fodder.

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Tropical - Lowland

Acrisols

Cambisols

Lithosols

Nitosols

Luvisols

Regosols

Yermosols

Solonchaks

Kastanozems

Gleysols

Tropical - Lowland

Acrisols

Cambisols

Lithosols

Nitosols

Luvisols

Regosols

Yermosols

Solonchaks

Kastanozems

Gleysols

Crop Type Image

Croplands

Agriculture serves as the foundation of the Indian economy, benefiting from India's favorable geographical position and a variety of physical factors including climate, soil, and relief. This conducive environment has facilitated the cultivation of numerous crops, making agriculture the primary livelihood for Indians throughout history. Beginning in the mid-1960s, traditional agricultural methods gradually gave way to modern technology and farming practices. The Green Revolution, initiated during this period, aimed to boost food production and address the nutritional needs of millions of people across India.

Desertification and land degradation pose significant challenges to agricultural productivity in India. Addressing these issues is a priority for the Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India, based in New Delhi. During the period from 2011 to 2013, approximately 96.40 million hectares, or 29.32% of India's Total Geographical Area (TGA), were affected by degradation.

The current state of Indian agriculture is characterized by high-input and high-output systems that often lead to environmental degradation and loss of farmer confidence in agriculture. Agriculture in states such as Maharashtra is facing serious challenges due to climate change since the last two decades. Maharashtrian farmers are plagued by issues such as rising temperature, uncertain rainfall and deteriorating soil health. These constraints faced by the farmers cause immense amounts of frustration among one of the largest farming communities in the country.

There is, therefore, a pressing need for practices that can sustainably increase productivity without compromising soil health and ecosystem services. One of the major challenges in cropland management is the sustainable integration of agricultural practices that enhance soil health, water retention, and biodiversity. Additionally, there is a need to mitigate the impacts of climate change on agriculture, requiring adaptive, resilient farming techniques.

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Crop Type Image

Feedlands

The productivity of pastures has also been falling due to overgrazing. Crop residues are expected to provide 54% of total fodder, while rangelands provide 18% and only 28% is met from cultivated fodder crops . There is currently a net deficiency of 35.6% green fodder, 10.95% dry fodder and 44% concentrate feed materials in the country. Besides continuous cultivation of rice-wheat causes deterioration of soil health, ultimately resulting in decreased production, the year-round availability of green fodder is a major challenge in the country. Therefore, diversification of rice-wheat systems with fodder crops on a rotational basis, as suggested by various workers.

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Crop Type Image

Animal Rearing

India experiences a tropical climate. More than 85% places in India experience moderate to high heat stress in April, May and June. Tropical climate offers hot and humid conditions to dairy animals which cause adverse effects on the animal’s health, production and welfare. In order to prevent the adverse effects of tropical climate proper, housing for dairy animals becomes necessary. In addition to heat stress, tropical climate has a hot-humid environment. Better management strategies become necessary to combat the adverse effects of heat stress that are imposed.

Indigenous cattle breeds: Gir, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, Deoni, Hallikar, Amritmahal, Khillari, Kangayam, Bargur, Pullikulam/Alambadi, Umblachery, Dagri, Kenkatha, Konkan Kapila, Tharparkar, Hariana, Kankrej, Ongole, Krishna Valley

Indigenous buffalo breeds: Murrah, Surti, Jaffrabadi, Bhadawari, Nili Ravi, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Toda, Bargur, Banni, Chilika, Kalahandi, Marathwadi, Pandharpuri 

Sheep Breeds: Mecheri, Keezhakaraisal, Neelagiri, Marwari, Balangir, Bellary, Bonpala 

Goat Breeds: Jamunapari, Beetal, Tellicherry, Barbari, Sirohi, Osmanabadi, Malabari, Changthangi, Chegu 

Pig Breeds: Large white Yorkshire, Landrace, Niang Megha, Ghungroo Pig 

Poultry 

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